The first problem is 12 X 34. The first number 12 is called the multiplicand. The next number 34 which is underneath is called the multiplier. The final answer is called the product.
First multiply the two numbers in the ones column which is 4 times 2 which equals 8.
Second, multiply the 4 in the multiplier row by 1 in the multiplicand row which is in reality multiplying 4 times 10 which is 40.
Third, multiply the 3 in the multiplier row by 2 in the multiplicand row which equals 6. This in reality is 30 times 2 which is 60.
Fourth, multiply the 3 in the multiplier row by 1 in the multilicand row which in reality is multiplying 30 times 10. This equals 300.
Fifth, add the subproducts 48 plus 360 which is 408.
The answer or product is 408.
Place Value
100s
10s
1s
Multiplicand
1
2
Multiplier
x
3
4
1stSubproduct
4
8
2ndSubproduct
+
3
6
0
Product
4
0
8
The second problem is 78 X 54. The first number 78 is called the multiplicand. The next number 54 which is underneath is called the multiplier. The final answer is called the product.
First, multiply 4 in the multiplier row times the 8 in the multiplicand row. This equals 32.
Place the 2 in the ones column under the 4. Notice the 3 in brackets. This number is going to be carried.
Second, multiply the 7 in the multiplicand row times 4 in the multiplier row which 28. Now add the 3 which was to be carried to the 28 which equals 31. The 1 should go under the 5 in the multiplier and the 3 to the left in the hundreds column.
Third, multiply the 5 in the multiplier row times the 8 in the ones column in the multiplicand row. This in reality is 50 times 8 which is 400. The 4 will be carried.
Fourth, multiply the 5 in the multiplier row times 7 in the multiplicand row which is 35. Add the 4 which is carried and the number is 39. The 9 is placed under the 3 in the hundreds column and the 3 is placed in the thousands column.
Fifth, add the subproducts 312 and 3900 which equals 4212. This is the answer or product.